The simplest method to purify water is to boil it for a good amount of time. High temperatures cause the bacteria and virus to dissipate, removing all impurities from the water. In doing so, chemical additions cease to exist in the water as well. However, the dead micro-organisms and impurities settle at the bottom of the water, and boiling does not help eliminate all the impurities. You must strain the water through a microporous sieve to completely get rid of the impurities.
An electric water purifier is the most trusted form of water purification that can be found in most houses today. A water purifier uses a multi-stage process that involves UV and UF filtration, carbon block, and modern water filtration technology that eliminates a majority of the chemicals and impurities making it the purest drinking water.
An RO Purifier proves to be one of the best methods of purifying water. Reverse Osmosis forces water through a semipermeable membrane and removes contaminants. The TDS Controller and Mineraliser Technology like the one found in an A. O. Smith RO UV Water Purifier help retain the necessary nutrients while doing away with harmful impurities.
This is an older technique used usually during an emergency, wherein a mild bleach with approximately 5% chlorine is added to the water. This mixture works as an oxidant and quickly kills microorganisms, making water safe for consumption.
Distillation is a water purification process that involves collecting the condensed water after evaporation, which ensures that water is free of contaminants. However, this isn't as effective as an RO filter because it is time-consuming and eliminates minerals as well.
Iodine is a red chemical that is easily available as a tablet or a liquid. It is extremely powerful as it kills bacteria and viruses. However, it adds an unpleasant taste and can be fatal if taken in high doses. Therefore, it should only be used if you don't have access to a better method of purification like an electric water purifier.
An alternative to the UV filtration is solar purification which involves treating water with the ultraviolet radiation of the sun. The process involves filling a plastic bottle with water, shaking it to activate the oxygen and leaving it horizontally in the sunlight. This effectively kills bacteria and viruses present in the water, making it safe for consumption.
Way before people had access to an RO or UV Purifier, they used clay pots which purified muddy water, by blocking out the mud and allowing pure, potable water to pass through. This method is still used in some rural regions.
Water is exposed to a UV Light that kills microorganisms, thereby preventing it from breeding further. But if not coupled with an RO Filter, UV Radiation alone cannot remove impurities and heavy metals.
This method is used when water with a certain level of salinity needs to be filtered. This process is helpful for eliminating salt content, but it also removes essential minerals. Desalination is not considered to be as effective as modern water purification methods.